Children from the very birth have a single temperament, on which their behavior in the early periods of development depends. It is recommended to start educational processes from the time they become aware of their own personality. The upbringing of a child for 2-3 years, psychology, advice are aimed at his well-coordinated, versatile development. The character of the baby at this age is not a prerequisite for his temperament, character in the future. At this time, he is learning self-government. It is the parent’s job to provide him with the proper care.
Psychology of a 2-year-old child
The crisis of 2 years is a period in the life of a young representative of society that many parents face. At this time, the baby from an obedient angel turns into a stubborn, constantly disobedient person. A protest is made against any demand. He is the first manifestation of his personal “I”.
The development and psychology of a 2.5-year-old child is characterized by a number of significant changes. Self-awareness is associated with the first skills of body control and control. He ceases to perceive himself and his mother as one whole, perceives himself as a separate person.
Counteractions, protests, disobedience are ways of manifesting children’s independence. Through this behavior, the baby takes the first steps towards individualization. It is important to go through this period of change in the psychology of a child at 2 years old, to perceive it as the first step towards further personality formation.
Features of the psychology of a child 2–3 years old (boys and girls):
- Development of the ability to imitate. The first model for him is a parent or educator.
- Development of speech. On request, the baby is able to perform more complex tasks. He tries to understand the meaning of the conversations of adults, to take part in them.
- Preference for subjects over peers. There is an active study of the surrounding objects. They are more fun than playing with other children. It is important to help the baby in the study of their properties, qualities.
- Mastering, understanding the accepted behavioral norms.
- Lack of ability to plan actions. The baby’s actions occur impulsively, spontaneously.
- Exploring your own body. Along with the use of facial expressions during this age period, the study of the body and its properties takes place.
At the age of 2, children are drawn to physical and psychological self-control. They refuse to fulfill the requirements, sit on the pot, etc. The psychology of children 2–3 years old is characterized by a manifestation of independence. This feeling should not be muted, but supported.
Parents need patience in the upbringing process. It is important to moderately maintain healthy stubbornness, but not at the cost of constant concessions, indulging all the whims (there is a risk of raising a little tyrant). The best option is to distract attention, switch it to another interesting activity.
In the psychology of children from 2 to 3 years old, an important role is played by praise (it should be present with any achievement), support for creativity, imagination. A child’s opinion should be no less important than an adult’s. Firmness is required only in relation to things that pose a threat to his safety. The absence of concessions will make it clear to him that in certain cases the confrontation will not bring the desired result.
Behavioral specifics of a 2-3-year-old child
The psychological characteristics of children 2–3 years old do not imply the correct framework for behavior. During this period, their actions are determined by the type of temperament. Actions are unpredictable, opinions and desires change several times a day.
Features of behavior, psychology of a child in 2-3 years:
- Desire to study new subjects, types of activity. It is important to provide your baby with opportunities to explore the world.
- Accelerated mental development. It is advisable to deal with the child. Exercises for the development of motor skills (lacing, modeling, etc.) are suitable. In addition to motor skills, these exercises will improve memory and support the development of imaginative thinking.
The psychology of a child at 2 years old (girl, boy) is characterized by the ability for independent activity, the development of imagination. Excessive workload with developmental activities is inappropriate. Playing with toys will be of no less benefit. Most suitable dolls, plush toys, age-appropriate constructors. Playing with toys, the baby enters their world, speaks on behalf of each of its representatives. This is a normal stage of development and behavior at this age.
Reading poetry and fairy tales to the child will contribute to the development of memory. Researching other information is also helpful (eg, family members’ names, family names, residential addresses, etc.). Reading daily also supports the development of speech skills. At the age of up to 3 years, children easily learn languages, so in an international family it is useful to start their easy learning.
Prohibitions often cause tantrums and aggressive behavior. Therefore, advice in the psychology of parenting at 2 years old includes the study of information in a playful way. This approach will eliminate tension, prevent hysterical attacks. This age period is the time of the first manifestations of anxiety.
Psychological trauma caused by stress, fear is fraught with problems in the future. Sometimes specialized help is required to solve them.
Articulation and speech skills
At the age of 2, children understand many things well. At this time, their vocabulary is quickly replenished. The psychology of upbringing children under 3 years old focuses on the importance of conversations with them. A child of taciturn parents often begins to talk later than peers. The conversation should be conducted using laconic, understandable sentences, avoid distortion, reduction of words.
Babies with brothers and sisters learn to speak faster. Older children express their thoughts in a language that the child understands, in games they use simple commands that support the development of speech and articulation skills. This factor is absent in communication with peers.
According to child psychology for parents, at 2-3 years old, children should play under the supervision of an adult. The older person will be able to direct mutual actions (for example, building a house from cubes). This will contribute to the development of competition, the ability to collectively interact with the use of speech.
Recommendations for the psychology of a child aged 2-3 years (girls, boys):
- imitation of sounds – such games are interesting for children, in addition, they contribute to the development of articulation;
- considering bright books, reading with an invitation to the child to come up with the endings of simple sentences himself;
- repetition of simple words;
- studying the properties of surrounding objects (size, color, etc.);
- learning simple songs.
According to the psychology of development of children at 2 years old, parents play a primary role in the formation of speech abilities. Their patience and perseverance are important in this process. But we must remember: classes, exercises should be non-violent, end at the moment of loss of interest in them.
Differences in the psychology of 2-year-old girls and boys
With the 3rd year of life, the period of gender identification by children begins. Until that time, there is no such division. Attending a children’s team accelerates this realization. It manifests itself, in particular, in the differentiation of children into groups for play.
Features of upbringing, psychology of a boy at 2 years old:
- critical attitude to repetition in the learning process;
- predominantly visual perception of information, rather than auditory (therefore, it is better for boys to show things, and not talk about them);
- often boys are more emotional than girls; if there is a reason, you need to allow them to show feelings, cry;
- for boys, the use of distance vision is characteristic, which is why they need more space for games; they prefer mobile activity more (with a ball, catching up, etc.);
- the same applies to toys – preference is given to toys that involve movement (constructors, bricks, etc.);
- boys are drawn to compete, they want to stand out; their development can be supported by suitable sports activities.
The role of parents in raising a boy is also to explain to him the importance of respect for the girl, the inadmissibility of blows, pushing. Discussions about the role of men in the family are needed. It is better to entrust this to the father, who, in addition to theoretical explanations, must show by his own example a respectful attitude towards a woman.
Features of the psychology of a girl at 2 years old:
- phasing, repetition, consolidation – this is how the girl masters knowledge better;
- hearing is mainly used to perceive information, so it is better for girls not to show objects, but to talk about them;
- bright colors should be present in toys for girls; plush toys, dolls are suitable for them;
- girls need more affection than boys.
A 2-3-year-old girl can purchase a toy kitchen set and a set of household appliances. This will help support the desire to take care of the home. Girls try to imitate their mothers, they are drawn to help with the housework. Therefore, such an acquisition will benefit their development.
Tasks to promote speech development
At 2 years old, not all babies can talk. But if they react to the appeal, look into the eyes when talking, and can fulfill parental requests, this is not a cause for concern. They will speak – everything has its time. To speed up this process, it is important to read them, sing understandable songs. Fine motor training will also support intellectual development.
Physical development also plays a role in the formation of speech. It is important to combine exercises for fine motor skills with mobile activities. Sorter toy useful for the development of children. In the process of playing, name the figure, let the baby feel its outline, help insert it into the hole intended for it.
According to the psychology of a child at 2.5 years old, it is impossible to forbid him specific games, such as pouring objects or pouring water from one container to another. But it is important to create conditions that are convenient for everyone (in particular, choose a place for the game that is not difficult for subsequent cleaning). Activities such as modeling, cutting, plasticine shaping will support the development of the baby.
After reaching 3 years of age, you can begin to instill a moral foundation. The first steps are the development of self-esteem, respect for others. The information presented in a form that is interesting for the kid, for example, with the help of cartoons, will be better perceived.
Recommendations for parents regarding the upbringing of 2-3-year-old children
The psychology of a child at 2 years old (up to 2.5 years old) indicates a lack of guilt. It is inappropriate to punish him. Although he sees the consequences, in his mind they are not associated with previous actions. Punishment for him is evidence of a lack of love.
Up to 3 years old, it is important to exclude angry explanations, since they are not perceived by the child’s psyche. In this age period, there will be enough reasonable taboos, clearly stated restrictions.
After about 3 years, the awareness of guilt for what happened begins. This is a period of perceiving oneself as an individual personality, the ability to understand the differences between good deeds that bring joy to parents and bad ones that upset them. But due to the lack of self-control, the confrontation continues.
Often the blame for a bad deed is attributed to an imaginary friend of this age. In this case, parents need to understand the reasons for the baby’s actions. This can be done by having a friendly conversation with him, calmly asking for help in the direction of the situation.
3 years is the age of bad behavior. Through opposition, the boundaries of what is permitted are tested, a sense of independence is gained. Punishment can lead to resistance instead of the expected obedience. Patience is important during this time. Over time, the baby will “outgrow”, the relationship with him will improve.
IMPORTANT! Informational article! Before use, you must consult with a specialist.