Modern concepts of education and training are aimed at developing a confident, successful personality. The responsibility of the parents is to create conditions for the disclosure of the inherent natural potential of the child. The laws of development and behavior of children are studied by the science of child psychology. The formation of personality occurs under the influence of biological, social factors, lasts from birth to puberty.
What does child psychology study?
Observations and analysis of the process of personality formation underlie child psychology. This is a separate area that studies the conscious and unconscious factors of development. Experts analyze the characteristics of behavior, the ability to cognize the surrounding world, the degree of socialization, the development of cognitive abilities. The uniqueness of each personality is undeniable.
Child psychology studies the stages that everyone goes through as they grow up. Analyzes biological, social factors that influence the formation of personality. Psychologists also take into account the time intervals between developmental stages.
Psychology of a child under 5 years old
Children are not inclined to ask themselves questions, delve into personality traits, analyze between actions and consequences. All the attention of the child is occupied by the knowledge of the surrounding world, society. Vivid manifestations of emotions – laughter, crying, just the tip of the iceberg. What happens in the inner world of the baby, how his reactions are formed, the relationship with the world – the answers can be found in child psychology.
The main stages of growing up:
- improvement of the musculoskeletal system;
- knowledge of the world, the formation of speech;
- the emergence and management of the emotional sphere;
- socialization in micro and macro society.
The developmental psychology of a child under 5 years of age lays down a scenario for future adult life:
- from 0 to a year old, the baby is at the stage of existence, the main task of the parents is to provide a comfortable, safe environment, responding in a timely manner to his needs;
- from 1 to 2 years, the stage of action lasts, at this stage the support of parents for exploring the world around is important, the baby takes the initiative;
- at the age of three, there is a need to expand the environment, independence, define oneself as a person separate from the parents, psychologists recommend at this stage to set the boundaries of behavior, harmoniously introducing them into the life of the crumbs;
- from 3 to 5 years, the formation of their own I takes place, actively communicates with peers, is interested in the differences between boys and girls, learns acceptable behavior, collects information about the world – why, when, why.
There is an active development of motor and cognitive skills, processes closely related to each other. Self-determination of a person is formed under the influence of parents. Criticism, punishments form uncertainty, fears. For a harmonious formation process, it is important to present information in a playful way, while not distorting the essence.
Fundamentals of child psychology after 5 years
At this age, the child is able to draw logical conclusions, find cause-and-effect relationships. Cognition of the world continues, but at a deeper level. The first confrontations with adults take place to outline the boundaries of acceptable behavior. Games are becoming more social, a hierarchy of relationships – mothers and daughters is manifested. Physical conflicts are inferior to verbal ones, resentment and anger persist longer.
Features of child psychology after 5 years:
- priorities will mix, parents remain the main ones in life, but other adults and peers appear, influencing the knowledge of the world;
- both physical and cognitive abilities are improved, despite the prerogative of intellectual learning, the need for play remains;
- integration into society requires support from parents, training in communication skills, cooperation;
- the emotional sphere develops, relationships with peers and adults are formed, divides them into groups – like / dislike;
- the parent remains unshakable authorities, the first conflicts are possible when defending your I.
The psychology of children of this age is formed by the parents. Severity, authoritarianism, prohibitions oppress the little personality. He is not a full participant in his life; adults make all decisions for him. Without giving the right to choose, parents create a comfortable, flexible child. Having become an adult, he will not be able to determine the desired directions of development for himself.
Psychologists recommend avoiding excessive severity, as well as the other extreme – permissiveness. It is necessary to conduct a dialogue with children, explain the reasons for actions, decisions of adults. It is important to discuss the operating points – why you need to brush your teeth, do exercises, go to bed on time. The kid will understand that this is not just a whim of the parents, their actions are dictated by care and love. A confident, strong-willed personality will gradually form, who in the future will be able to take responsibility for her life.
Psychology for Children – Exam for Parents
The goal of child psychology is to help a child to reveal his potential, to be in harmony with himself and the outside world. For education, you cannot allocate a couple of hours 3 times a week. This is an ongoing process, success depends on the behavior of the parents:
- you should not take as a basis the examples of raising your parents, grandmothers, grandfathers, each person has his own temperament, talents, potential;
- there is no single correct methodology that solves all problems, it is worth being flexible using effective methods;
- if parents are at a dead end, do not know how to cope with situations, it is better to contact a specialist;
- parents are not only sources of information, but also examples of behavior, communication, so that the child grows up healthy, strong, confident, mom and dad must also have these qualities;
- child psychology is aimed at psycho-emotional development, the acquisition of new skills that are appropriate for the age of the baby, you should not devote children to their adult problems, of which they are a part, so you can develop a sense of guilt, the starting point of fears, complexes.
The world of the child is filled with bright colors, positive emotions, there are problems in it that are very important for a small personality. If an adult is not interested in the baby s life, considering all events and experiences to be trifles, it is easy to lose the thread of trust. Then it is difficult for parents to establish contact, understand actions, protests. Over the years, conflicts between generations intensify, which leads to psychological trauma of the developing personality. Already being an adult, a person still returns to childhood traumas that interfere with self-realization, a happy life.
Common parenting mistakes
Child psychology is the science of the correct organization of a child s life. It is useful to study the main aspects not only for parents, but also for everyone around them – grandmothers, grandfathers, teachers. The main mistakes of the educational process have a destructive effect on the psyche, forming complexes and fears:
- Coercive tools are not effective for learning. The child does not receive positive emotions from the process and instead of changing the approach, involving the child, the adult exerts emotional pressure. As a result, a weak-willed personality grows up, accustomed to following other people s attitudes.
- Shame the child instead of calmly discussing the situation and assessing behavior. A public outburst of emotions is especially dangerous, the baby feels condemnation from adults and his own worthlessness. To avoid such situations, the child will hide his emotions, gradually fencing off his parents with a wall.
- Child psychology defines mental and physical punishment as violence against a person. Any aggression on the part of adults lays the seeds for the development of cruelty in the future.
- Threats feed fear, develop self-doubt. The child does not feel safe – the basic need for the normal development of the psyche. Devaluation of oneself as a person hinders the development of natural potential. Low self-esteem becomes an obstacle to a successful career and the creation of a happy family.
- Criticism from adults can lead to protests, a desire to prove their worth. Hypersensitive children, with harsh assessments of their actions, become isolated, in the future they are afraid to make mistakes. Unreasonable censure of actions forms a notorious, timid personality.
- Ignoring is tantamount to punishment. The child forms the opinion that he is insignificant in the life of the parents. Devaluation of its role will be observed in the future.
The inappropriate behavior of children is a reflection of the mistakes of adults in upbringing. Knowledge of the basics of child psychology will help create optimal conditions for the development of a harmonious personality.
Praise is a tool of good behavior
Encouragement is an indicator for a child, indicating the correctness of his actions. In addition to the function of regulating behavior, it helps in the formation of confidence, its significance. If used improperly, it can lead to the development of a sense of superiority over others. Psychologists recommend praising children for certain actions, and no more than 8 times a day. It is advisable to combine different types so as not to lose their significance. Do not confuse encouragement and tenderness, affection that parents can show without restrictions.
Types of incentives:
- verbal – “Well done, collected toys!”, “Good girl, watered flowers!”
- tactile – tossing, hugging, high-five;
- material – toys, entertainment, sweets;
- emotional – spending time with parents, friends.
How to properly reward:
- you need to praise immediately after the action;
- it is enough to note the child s good deed once;
- not manipulate by using praise to build contact.
How to determine readiness for training?
Child psychology by age allows you to determine the appropriate periods for learning. Knowledge of age norms helps to gradually develop cognitive and physical abilities, selecting the optimal transitions from simple to complex. To objectively assess a child s readiness to learn, psychologists use the following criteria:
- physical compliance with age norms – the development of large, fine motor skills;
- cognitive abilities – speech, memory, thinking;
- psychological readiness;
- the level of socialization – the willingness to listen and follow the instructions of adults, to cooperate with peers, to participate in the life of the collective
Interaction between children
Through communication with other children, the child learns about himself. Child psychology helps define the hierarchy in the team. Thus, older children often take responsibility for the younger ones, imitating the behavior of adults. They expect babies to unconditionally recognize their authority, which leads to conflicts and quarrels. Competition arises among peers for leadership and recognition in the team. The task of adults is to organize the communication of children so that they do not violate each other s personal boundaries.
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